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Pre-Build Procedures

A fibre installation project is a major undertaking. Responsibility for the oversight of everything from detailed implementation plans to community relations, ensuring sufficient materials are ordered in a timely manner to safety and environmental concerns, means an intense amount of pre-work and ongoing coordination for the life of a project.

As an unfaltering believer in a pre-build survey:

The verification of details contained in pre-build drawings, will ensure that potential problem areas are uncovered before the contemplated work kicks-off and potentially save one a lot of trouble later.

Using the information available on the pre-build drawings, walk the pegged out route by foot, to determine the following:

-Verify the soil classification/s by digging a pilot hole every 1km (hard, intermediate, soft)

− If the soils or soil properties are not what were expected as noted in the contract, the client must immediately be consulted

− Check and verify above and below ground utility locations

− Note changes in gradient and/or direction

− Identify all obvious landmarks where the route changes direction (take photos)

− Take photos of all obstacles along the route

− Verify HH / MH positions

− Note road / rail crossings

− Record crossings with other services

− Record the presence of structures near the trench

− Double-check the recorded details on the return journey

− The route is typically marked using lime

Pre-Build Survey Equipment and Tools

1. Digital camera and spare batteries.

2. GPS with tracking function and spare batteries.

3. DCP tester.

4. Tape measure.

5. Measuring wheel.

6. Clip board, note book and stationary.

7. Route drawing/s from the client.

8. Reflector jacket.

9. Personal Identification.

1. Always wear protective gloves and safety boots (with steel toe caps) when handling drums.

2. Check that the cable specified has been procured.

3. Inspect the cable drum for signs of excessive weathering and/or damage.

4. Drums must be transported or stored with their battens intact.

5. Do not accept delivery of an optical fibre cable should the drum is damaged.

6. The plastic foil wrap must remain in place until cable placement.

7. When removing the plastic foil wrap on the cable, do not use sharp tools that could potentially damage the cable jacket.

8. Ensure that the cable drum bolts are all tightened.

9. Verify that nails, bolts or screws on the inside surface of drum flanges are counter-sunk to avoid damage to the cable during placement.

10. Place the cable drum in line with the intended direction of deployment, in order to prevent the cable from rubbing against the reel flange.

11. Cable ends must always be sealed – using pre-formed or heat shrinkable end caps. Using tape for sealing cable ends is considered unsuitable.

12. Should the drum be rolled for some reason, always do so following the direction of the arrow.

13. Drums on site, must be chocked to prevent them from moving or rolling.

1. When handling cable, always wear; a protective overall, gloves and safety boots.

2. Never exceed the recommended cable bend radius:

10 x Cable OD - No Tension (installed)

20 x Cable OD -Under Tension(being installed)

3. What is the minimum bend radius of your microducts?

There is a simple formula: Radius min =10 x OD

Therefore, if you have microduct has a OD of 10mm, your Radius min =100mm

4. A total length of 17m (15m for slack and 2m for splicing) of cable slack is traditionally required in a HH or MH housing a splice enclosure. Be sure to consider the accessibility of HHs / MHs to splicing vehicles.

5. Install slack brackets on HH / MH walls to secure cables.

6. The slack in the HH or MH needs to be tied together using a tie wrap or PVC tape at 1m intervals.

7. The fibre cable slack inside the HH / MH must be coiled in a ‘clock-wise’ direction with minimal back tension.

8. Ensure that the slack of one splice closure does not become inter-twined with the slack of other splice closures in the HH / MH.

9. Bundle cables together in groups of relevance.

10. Do not route cables in such a manner that they block ducts.

11. Used ducts must be sealed between cable and duct.

12. Cable slack typically adds 2% to the overall distance. Thus a 100-km link is likely to contain as much as ± 102 Km’s of cable.

All team members MUST wear eye protection during DIT testing as small particles can be blown out of ducts through the holes in the DIT catcher.

1 Air Test

− Fit a DIT catcher on the far side and equip personnel with two-way radios.

− Allow the air to flow through duct for at least one minute, to remove all loose particles and/or moisture.

− Now proceed with the sponge test.

2. Foam Sponge Test

- cleaning the duct:

− A sponge is typically 100mm in length and 2 x the duct ID.

− Wet the sponge slightly with blowing lubricant.

− Place the tight-fitting foam sponge inside the microduct.

− At a pressure of 10bars, blow the sponge through the microduct.

− If excess water or dirt exits the microduct, repeat the process.

− Have a DIT catcher in place at the far end to catch the sponge when it emerges.

3. Mandrill Test - check for bends, kinks or blockages:

− The sponge test MUST precede this test - a mandrill can damage a dirty duct.

− Use a 40mm long mandrill made from Nylon or Teflon.

− The OD must be no more than 85% of the microduct ID

− At the receiving end, a DIT catcher must be used.

− Note that a flying shuttle can cause injury and/or damage!

− Always inspect the condition of the emerged mandrill, visible grooves is an indication of duct indents.

4. Pressure Test - check for coupler leaks or microduct punctures:

− Fit a high-pressure end-cap to the duct under test on the far-side.

− Gradually build the pressure up to 10 bars.

− Test all coupling used for this test for leaks, using soap, water and a sponge.

− Connect the air feed and leave this open until the pressure in duct stabilizes at 10 bars.

− Close the air valve on the test assembly and monitor the pressure gauge for 5min.

− Losing 1 bar in 5min is acceptable – any leak greater than that, must be found and fixed.

-If a duct fails the DIT test, consult with the relevant authority on whether to use an alternative duct or to repair of the designated duct.

1. The information on this route must accurately indicate distances.

2. Take photos of all obstacles on the route (existing services, bridge crossings, rocky areas, buildings, built-up areas, paved/tarred areas, wetlands, overhead obstacles, etc.).

3. Identify all obvious landmarks where the route changes direction (take photos).

4. Note down any road repair work necessary - record distances and GPS coordinates.

5. Provide for a series of DCP test readings along the route and document the exact positions.

6. Description of the topography along the route (sloping, edge of cliff, adjacent to lake, forest surroundings, rivers, swampy areas, etc.) - record distances and GPS coordinates.

7. Description of the ground condition along the route and distances (rocky, sandy, grassy, clay, etc.) - record distances and GPS coordinates.

8. Indicate the distance to the nearest town, where the civil works material (sand, cement, stone, water, tools, etc.) can be sourced from.

9. Locate possible warehouse/camp sites where material can safely be stored.

10. Indicate the availability of hospitals / clinics / police stations along the route - in case required during operational activities.

11. Plan the route to allow for projected road or rail deviations.

12. Double-check recorded details on the return journey.

Project management is the discipline of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverable) undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of such distinct production approaches requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies.

he primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints. This information is usually described in project documentation, created at the beginning of the development process. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary — and more ambitious — challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and apply them to meet pre-defined objectives.

Project conception and initiation

An idea for a project will be carefully examined to determine whether or not it benefits the organization. During this phase, a decision making team will identify if the project can realistically be completed

Project definition and planning

A project plan, project charter and/or project scope may be put in writing, outlining the work to be performed. During this phase, a team should prioritize the project, calculate a budget and schedule, and determine what resources are needed.

Project launch or execution

Resources' tasks are distributed and teams are informed of responsibilities. This is a good time to bring up important project related information.

Project performance and control

Project managers will compare project status and progress to the actual plan, as resources perform the scheduled work. During this phase, project managers may need to adjust schedules or do what is necessary to keep the project on track.

Project close

After project tasks are completed and the client has approved the outcome, an evaluation is necessary to highlight project success and/or learn from project history. Projects and project management processes vary from industry to industry; however, these are more traditional elements of a project. The overarching goal is typically to offer a product, change a process or to solve a problem in order to benefit the organization.

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